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13 In countries where FGM is common, the practice's many variants are reflected in dozens of terms, often alluding to purification.
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Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
From 1929 the Kenya Missionary Council referred to it as the sexual mutilation of women, following the lead of Marion Scott Stevenson, a Church of Scotland missionary.
"Female genital mutilation", Geneva: World Health Organization, January 2018.
These were removed from the WHO's 2008 definition because of insufficient information about prevalence and consequences.Aa The Egyptian government banned infibulation in state-run hospitals in 1959, but allowed partial clitoridectomy if parents requested.11 European and Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period; European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century.Types Standard questionnaires from United Nations bodies ask women whether they or their daughters have undergone the following: (1) cut, no flesh removed (symbolic nicking (2) cut, some flesh removed; (3) sewn closed; or (4) type not determined/unsure/doesn't know.156 Isaac Baker Brown, an English gynaecologist, president of the Medical Society of London and co-founder in 1845.